For a scooter, bicycle or other electric vehicle to move, a battery alone is not enough. You also need boards to manage the batteries, sockets to connect them.
What is a battery management system (BMS)?
The battery management system is a microchip, which controls the operation of the battery. The area of its "competence" includes managing device downloading and charging, security, monitoring status, evaluating battery performance.
Any battery is made up of many tiny cells, all of which work together. Temperature control, input and output voltage, charge and discharge cycles allow you to extend the life of each individual element and therefore the battery as a whole.
Which batteries need a management system?
If your electric bike or scooter has a lithium-ion battery, you can't do without a BMS. The fact is, a lithium-ion battery is prone to overheating, which can lead to a fire. The board records the temperature readings of the batteries and prevents excessive overheating.
Lithium-phosphorus batteries are safer from this point of view, - even with intensive work, they rarely overheat to critical values. In principle, it is not necessary to install a control system for such a battery. But if you have the opportunity, it is better to install it anyway. The fact is, that lithium-phosphorus batteries are susceptible to overcharging or vice versa - too low a charge (below 10%). The presence of BMS will protect the battery cells from the harmful effects of these factors.
How to choose BMS?
The easiest way, - is to buy a battery with a BMS already integrated, but this is not always possible.
- If you buy the battery separately, you need to match the control system with it. Each type of battery has its own type of control systems.
- The only exceptions are the Smart plate models, which are compatible with different types of lithium batteries.
- The main parameter of the control system is the number of cells, which the BMS can serve. For example, a "10 cell" board is capable of controlling a 12 cell battery.
- Also pay attention to the load, as each type of system is "sharpened" for certain current ranges.
For some devices, only symmetric boards are needed, - an example is a gyro scooter.